|Students use observable characteristics to describe objects and materials and changes to physical properties of materials.
||Students describe properties of objects and materials before and after they undergo a change or interaction.
||Students describe physical and chemical properties of matter, interactions and changes in matter, and transfer of energy through matter.
||Students describe the structure, behavior, and interactions of matter at the atomic level and the relationship between matter and energy.
|a. Describe objects in terms of what they are made of and their physical properties.
b. Describe changes in properties of materials when mixed, heated, frozen, or cut.
|a. Describe how the weight of an object compares to the sum of the weight of its parts.
b. Illustrate how many different substances can be made from a small number of basic ingredients.
c. Describe properties of original materials, and the new material(s) formed, to demonstrate that a change has occurred.
d. Describe what happens to the temperatures of objects when a warmer object is near a cooler object.
e. Describe how the heating and cooling of water and other materials can change the properties of the materials.
f. Explain that the properties of a material may change but the total amount of material remains the same.
g. Explain that materials can be composed of parts too small to be seen without magnification.
|a. Describe that all matter is made up of atoms and distinguish between/among elements, atoms, and molecules.
b. Describe how physical characteristics of elements and types of reactions they undergo have been used to create the Periodic Table.
c. Describe the difference between physical and chemical change.
d. Explain the relationship of the motion of atoms and molecules to the states of matter for gases, liquids, and solids.
e. Explain how atoms are packed together in arrangements that compose all substances including elements, compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
f. Explain and apply the understanding that substances have characteristic properties, including density, boiling point, and solubility and these properties are not dependent on the amount of matter present.
g. Use the idea of atoms to explain the conservation of matter.
h. Describe several different types of energy forms including heat energy, chemical energy, and mechanical energy.
i. Use examples of energy transformations from one form to another to explain that energy cannot be created or destroyed.
j. Describe how heat is transferred from one object to another by conduction, convection, and/or radiation.
k. Describe the properties of solar radiation and its interaction with objects on Earth.
|a. Describe the structure of atoms in terms of neutrons, protons, and electrons and the role of the atomic structure in determining chemical properties.
b. Describe how the number and arrangement of atoms in a molecule determine a molecule’s properties, including the types of bonds it makes with other molecules and its mass, and apply this to predictions about chemical reactions.
c. Explain the essential roles of carbon and water in life processes.
d. Describe how light is emitted and absorbed by atoms’ changing energy levels, and how the results can be used to identify a substance.
e. Describe factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions (including concentration, pressure, temperature, and the presence of molecules that encourage interaction with other molecules).
f. Apply an understanding of the factors that affect the rate of chemical reaction to predictions about the rate of chemical reactions.
g. Describe nuclear reactions, including fusion and fission, and the energy they release.h. Describe radioactive decay and half-life.
i. Explain the relationship between kinetic and potential energy and apply the knowledge to solve problems.
j. Describe how in energy transformations the total amount of energy remains the same, but because of inefficiencies (heat, sound, and vibration) useful energy is often lost through radiation or conduction.
k. Apply an understanding of energy transformations to solve problems.
l. Describe the relationship among heat, temperature, and pressure in terms of the actions of atoms, molecules, and ions.